Ability to provide First aid - a very important skill. Because he can save someone's life in an emergency! Get acquainted with these important algorithms of first aid to know how to act in an emergency situation.
Before first aid, make sure that you yourself Nothing threatens. And also if possible try to protect against further injury to others, for example, pull a person out of a burning car.
After that, check if the victims signs of life - do they have a pulse, breath, do they reactPupils to light. The pulse is felt on the carotid artery, breathing can be checked with a glass or a mirror. Then shake the person's shoulders to check whether he is conscious.
The next step is a call in place Specialists. Before their arrival try to render the firstUrgent help - to restore the patency of the airways, to conduct an indirect massage of the heart, to make artificial respiration, to stop the bleeding. Do everything in your power to help the survivor to live up to the arrival of the ambulance.
If during a preliminary examination you did not find any signs of breathing in a person, perform artificial ventilation.
- So that the victim can breathe, turn his headOn the side and using the finger to remove from the mouth, blood, mucus and foreign objects. Check if the victim's nose is blocked, and if necessary, clean them.
- Tilt the human head, holding the neck with one hand.
- If the victim has a spinal injury, do not even think about changing the position of his head!
- Pin his nose with his thumb and forefinger. Take a deep breath, then tightly press your lips to the victim's mouth. Exhale into the lungs of the victim.
- The first 5-10 exhalations should be done quickly (for 20-30 seconds), then - 12-15 exhalations per minute.
Look at the human chest. If at the inhalation it rises, then you are doing everything right.
Indirect cardiac massage
If there is no pulse besides breathing, you need to perform an indirect cardiac massage.
Attention! You can not do a closed heart massage, if there is a pulse.
- Put the victim on a firm flat surface. To carry out a compression of a thorax on a bed or a sofa - the bad idea.
- Find on the human body a xiphoid process - the shortest and narrowest part of the sternum, its ending.
- 2-4 cm up from this process and there is a place where you need to press.
- Put the base of the palm on this point. Your thumb should look at the victim's stomach or chin (this depends on your location). Put one hand on the other and push it firmly on its base. Fingers should not touch the sternum of the affected person.
- Do shocks rhythmically, smoothly and severelyVertically, engage the full weight of the upper half of your body. It is necessary to produce from 100 to 110 pressures per minute. The thorax should be bent 3-4 cm.
- The closed heart massage for a child is made with the help of the index and middle fingers of one hand. Teenager, using the palm of one hand.
Bleeding is capillary, venous and arterial.
Capillary bleeding Can be stopped with an aseptic bandage. If the limbs are injured, you need to raise them above the level of the trunk.
If a person Venous bleeding, You need to apply a pressure bandage. This is done in this way: put a gauze on the wound, on top - several layers of cotton or a clean towel, tightly bandaged. The veins, squeezed by such a bandage, are quickly thrombosed and cease to bleed.
Adjust the tourniquet to stop Arterial bleeding Can only be for 1 hour.
First aid for fracture
- Assess how much the victim has severe trauma and determine the place of the fracture.
- Stop bleeding (if any).
- It is necessary to check whether it is possible to move the victim before the arrival of specialists. In no case do not carry it and do not try to change its position with spinal injuries!
- To ensure the immobility of the bone in the fracture region - immobilization. For this you need to immobilize the joints that are above and below the fracture.
- Lay the tire. For this you can use all sorts of rulers, sticks, rods, etc. tightly, but not tightly, fix the tire with band-aid or bandages.
Help with fainting
A person who has fainted must be placed horizontally and provided with Fresh air. You can splash on it with cold water or lightly pat your cheeks. If you have a first aid kit on hand, ammonia will immediately lead him to his senses.
When the victim comes to himself, give him strong tea or coffee.
If within 3-5 minutes a person does not come to the creation, immediately call an ambulance.
First aid with frostbite
- Put the victim in heat.
- Take off his wet or frozen clothes.
- With slight frostbite, you can grind the damaged parts of the body. In more severe cases (frostbite ii-iv degree) grinding can not be done.
- Use oil or petroleum jelly for grinding. Do not rub the victim with snow. Wrap the frosted part of the body.
- Give the victim hot food or a hot sweet drink.
First aid for poisoning
- The affected person should wash his stomach. Let him drink a few glasses of salted water (1 liter 10 grams of salt and 5 grams of soda). After 2-3 glasses, it is necessary to induce vomiting. These actions must be repeated until the emetic masses of the victim become "clean." To carry out lavage of the stomach can only be when a person is conscious.
- Then you need to give the victim 10-20 tablets of activated carbon to drink, pre-dissolving it in a glass of water. Wait for the arrival of specialists.
Let these recommendations help you out in a difficult situation. Of course, it is better that it does not happen at all, but no one from this is not insured.
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