Why do people become addicted?
The light saw another bestseller «chasing theYoganna hari, in which the author literally "chews up" what drug addiction is, and why everyone - from governments to our parents - lies to us on this topic.
To write this book the author took three and a half years, and the result of the work was that many can simply shock: "Everything, about what they told me at school and on TV about drugs, is a lie, - assures hari. - I can tell you a completely different story. If, of course, you are ready to listen to it".
Why people become addicts
If every day pass by the kiosk, nearWhich someone actively offers a real pill of joy, then what is the probability of never getting caught on a hook if you know 100% that, in order to get hooked on this chemical, you need to take it at least 20 times? It seems to be zero.
First, just like the buzz, and then comes the same conditional 21-th time, after which a person already feels a fierce craving for the substance. That's what dependence means, it's logical, is not it? «not true! "- says Johann Hari.
In the middle of the last century in America was held the legendary Experiment with rats. Its essence was that the rat was placed in a cage with two bottles of water (ordinary water and one to which heroin or cocaine was added).
No matter how many times this experiment was repeated, the rat almost certainly chose "narcotic" water. So continued until the animal itself did not kill.
They usually explain this: "In one of the bottles was so powerfulA substance that nine out of ten laboratory rats instantly became dependent on it. And then exhausted themselves so actively that they died. In the same way cocaine affects people... "
However, in the 1970s, a psychology professor fromVancouver, Bruce Alexander, repeated the same study, but made some amendments to it. In the course of the experiment, a real ret park (rat park) with spacious cells, plates with food, colored balls, tunnels and a lot of animals was built. And just like in the "original" experiment, rats were offered a choice of two bottles of water.
It was surprising that the rats that livedInteresting and busy life (so much fun!) In this park did not sit down either for cocaine, or for heroin. For a few days of experiment they already figured out what bottles are the drugs in, and in what - not, and drank water from the "fun" cans in just one out of every four cases. No rat became a drug addict and brought herself to death!
The assumptions of the alexander turned out to be correct: if a living being is placed in a favorable environment, it is unlikely to become addicted to some kind of drug.
The following research the professor has broken onTwo stages. First he put the rats in a single cell for 57 days and waited until they got addicted to the drug, and then sat before the isolated rats in the "society" in their ret park. The results were amazing: "drug addicts" returned to normal life after only a few days!
Surprisingly, there are people who once becameParticipants in such an experiment, without knowing it! Those who failed to slip and got to the hospital with a fracture of the thigh, in the thirteenth century doctors stabbed diamorphine (the medical name of heroin).
So, if you believe the conventional theory, then all,Those who received such injections must have become drug addicts. However, thousands of people who took diamorphine in the hospital were discharged and became healthy people, rather than dodging the gateways in search of a dose.
So in what is it? If you want - believe it or not - but drug addiction is not a chemical hook. Returning to the experiments of Alexander Bruce, it can be noted that a street addict is a "rat" in a single cage.
He has only one source of comfort, to which he can apply. Patients of rehabilitation clinics are "rats from ret park": they return home, to people who love them.
Professor Peter Cohen argues that humanBeings have a deep need for closeness and connection with other members of society. This is what we get the most satisfaction from, and if for some reason we can not communicate with each other, then we will find something else - the rustle of a tape measure or the injection of a syringe with heroin.
«The addict associates his life with heroin because he could not connect it with anything else, - concludes the Cohen. - In order to defeat dependence, we do not need sobriety. We need a human attitude".
If someone will tell you that addiction is a consequence Chemical dependence, Then ask him: how to deal with gamblers? No one believes that a deck of cards can be "let through the vein!"
Consider the problem of smoking. Everyone knows that cigarettes contain nicotine, a substance you get used to. When the first nicotine patches appeared in pharmacies, this was the reason for a surge of optimism: at last smokers will be able to continue to consume nicotine, but without deadly consequences. But it was not there.
According to statistics, only 17.7% of smokers are able to Quit smoking With the help of nicotine patches. This figure shows that drug addiction has other causes, and not only the notorious "chemical hooks."
All these studies have enormous implications for the centuries-old war on drugs.
Strangely enough, such a struggle only increasesNumber of addicts. In prison in Arizona, the author of the bestseller Johann Hari saw prisoners who are kept in a punishment cell for weeks to punish them for using drugs. «When these people are released, they will not be able to get a job because of a criminal record and will immediately become drug addicts. Heroin will become their friend, because they simply do not have anyone to turn to", Says the hari.
But there is an alternative. 15 years ago, Portugal probably had the most serious Problems with drugs in Europe. 1% of the country's population is addicted to heroin. The country tried to fight it with the help of the police, but the situation only worsened, so the authorities decided to try something new.
They decided to abolish criminal liability forUse of any drugs. And the money that was formerly spent on building prisons and building up new and new anti-drug departments went to purchase drugs for substitution therapy, as well as for housing and jobs.
«If to give the drug addict the opportunity to go for opiates to a normal clean clinic, where no one will humiliate and insult him, it will almost certainly save him from dependence", Concludes Johann Hari.
The conclusion to which the author comes in his book - people should rethink themselves, realize the importance of love and good relations, create a culture of mutual assistance and sympathy: "We paid too much attention to individualMethods of treatment of drug addiction, but in fact we need a social rehabilitation of the drug culture. We need to talk about the fact that we do not have the right to isolate ourselves from drug addicts".
Tell your friends about these new studies in the field of drug dependence. Live a full life, and no drugs you do not need!